American Diabetes Association.

Central serous retinopathy — A doctor or ophthalmologist uses an ophthalmoscope to detect fluid between layers of the retina. This may cause spots floating in your vision, flashes of light or severe vision loss. When your retina is pulled away it is called a retinal detachment and, if left untreated, it can cause severe vision loss, including blindness. Watch how macular enema and macular ischemia affect your eyes. Thereafter, injections are needed less often: typically three to four during the second six months of treatment, about four during the second year of treatment, two in the third year, one in the fourth year, and none in the fifth year. Retinopathy is usually a sign of another medical condition. Laser surgery may be used. American Diabetes Association. All or part of the vitreous may be removed. Surgery – may be required for severe cases of diabetic retinopathy that do not respond to laser treatment.

They do not cure diabetic retinopathy or reverse the changes that have already occurred. It's usually done in your doctor's office or eye clinic in two or more sessions. If you are not able to keep your blood sugar levels in a target range, it can cause damage to your blood vessels. Surgery – may be required for severe cases of diabetic retinopathy that do not respond to laser treatment. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes - 2015. The central retinal vein, or the retinal veins branching off of it, can become compressed, thus stopping the drainage of blood from the retina. 

retinopathy